Did Moses Exist?

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations

Preface

The Book of Enoch and Talmud

Comparative Religion Suppressed

Meaningful Mythology

Primary Sources and Translations

Pioneering Scholarship

Modern Discoveries

Space Consideration

Unprecedented Access

Introduction

Greek Scriptural Knowledge?

Philo Judaeus of Alexandria

Mythological, Not Historical

The Mysterious Milieu of the Day

Many Lawgivers and Law Codes

Jewish and Pagan Syncretism

Major Crossing

Egypt and the Levant

Byblos

Osiris in Jerusalem

Differences Irrelevant

Biblical Special Pleading

Who Wrote the Pentateuch?

Mosaic Attribution

Anachronisms and Contradictions

Book of the Wars of the Lord

Moses’s Era

No Moses Before the Exile?

Divine Revelation and Authority

No Archaeological Evidence

Wellhausen and the Documentary Hypothesis

Exodus Composition

Earlier Folklore

The Book of the Law

Found or Fabricated?

Josiah’s Yahwism

Ezra’s Memories

Ancient Egyptian Words

Hebrew Emergence

Conclusion

Was Moses an Egyptian Pharaoh or Priest?

Exodus Date

Akhenaten the Monotheist?

Atenism

Hebrew Henotheism

Yahweh Supremacy

Great Hymn to Aten and Psalm 104

Thutmose II

Etymology of Moses

Pharaoh Thutmose III

King Tut

Ramesses I

Seti I

Ramesses II

Nectanebo II

A Priest of Aten?

Historical Fiction

Conclusion

The Exodus as History?

Nonbiblical References

Logistic Implausibility

Modern Gatherings Irrelevant

Geography and Archaeology

The Burning Bush

Rods to Serpents

Bricks without Straw

Elderly Leaders

The 10 Plagues

Unleavened Bread

Mass Communication

The Route of the Exodus

The Philistines

Pillars of Cloud and Fire

Parting the Red Sea?

Exodus Encampments?

Mt. Horeb and Mt. Sinai

Serabit el-Khadim

Gulf of Aqaba

Baal Zephon and Migdol

Water Sources

Heavenly Manna

29 Trillion Quails?

Tents or Booths?

Striking the Rock

The Amalekites and the Magic Rod

Judging According to What Statutes?

Priests before Priests?

The Ten Commandments

The Ark of the Covenant

Golden Calf

Magical Wood?

Cannibalism

Disposition of the Dead

Giants in the Promised Land

No Edomites

Holy Genocide

Time Compression

Canaanites and Amorites

Magical Clothes

Conquest of Canaan

Jericho

Apologies

Conclusion

The Exodus in Ancient Literature

Circular Reasoning

Song of the Sea

The Baal Cycle

The Deep and Other Allegories

Song of Moses

The Song of Deborah

Exodus in the Prophets

Absent Egyptian Record

The Ipuwer Papyrus

Amarna Letters

Conclusion

Hyksos and Lepers

Conquerors or Captives?

Religious Conflict?

History or Fiction?

Ahmose I

Jerusalem Founding

Hyksos as Greeks of Argos

Proto-Israelite Amorites

Osarseph and the Lepers

Syrians from Palestine

Antiochus IV

Lysimachus and Chaeremon

Tacitus on Jewish Origins

Flight of Saturn

Thieving Son of Joseph?

Conclusion

Who Were the Israelites?

El Prevails

Merneptah Stele

Hapiru

Shasu of Yhw

Yhw is Yahweh?

Early Israelite Religion

Conclusion

The Exodus as Myth

The Slaughter of Innocents

The Flight Archetype

The Great Mendes Stele

The Exodus from Egypt of Osiris

The Exodus of Jesus

Pagan Exoduses

Exodus as Midrash

Magical Rod

The 10 Plagues?

600,000 as a Mystical Number

Mythical Pillars

Parting and Crossing the Sea

Controlling the Waters

Storm and Sun God

Wandering the Wilderness

12 Wells and 70 Palms

Manna and Heavenly Bread

Water from a Rock

Forty Days, Nights and Years

The Many Arks

Covenants and Testaments

The Golden Calf Redux

Mythical Giants

Conclusion

The Lawgiver Archetype

The Hero’s Birth

Divine Legislators

Ur-Nammu

Menes/Manes, Manis and Mannus

Menu/Manu

Minos

Law Code/Tablets of Law

Pygmy Lawgiver

Conclusion

The Dionysus Connection

Early History

Sumerian Dionysus?

Dionysus in Literature

Homer

Hesiod

Homeric Hymns

Anacreon

Pindar

Herodotus

Orphic Hymns

Euripides

Aristophanes

Plato

Megasthenes

Artapanus

Apollodorus

Maccabees

Varro

Cicero

Diodorus

Horace

Ovid

Seneca

Pliny the Elder

Plutarch

Pausanias

Arrian

Justin Martyr

Lucian of Samosata

Clement of Alexandria

Polyaenus

Philostratus

Porphyry

Eusebius

Sepphoris Mosaics

Macrobius

Hermias

Nonnus

Sanford

Vossius

Bochart

Gale

Thomassin

Patrick

Danet

Huet

Voltaire

Edwards

Bell

Dupuis

Hort

Le Brun

Bellamy

Clarke

Higgins

Darlington

Taylor

Massey

Conclusion

The Life of Dionysus

See book for details

The Vine and Wine

Early History

Egypt’s Vineyards

Wine Goddesses

Greek Viniculture

Blood and Resurrection

Wine Epithets and Roles

Elixir of Love

Baal’s Cup

Sacred Drinking Banquet

Biblical Grape Reverence

Water to Wine

Ass and Foal

The Shoot of Jesse

Sacred Serpents

Conclusion

The Great God Sun

Shamash, Lord of the World

Semitic Sun Goddess

King, Shepherd and Raiser of the Dead

El the Canaanite High God

The God of Exodus?

Holy Mount of Elohim

Yahweh as El’s Son

El’s Wives Asherat and Anat

El Shaddai

Enlil and Ellil

Adad/Hadad

Conclusion

Yahweh and the Sun

Origins and History

Solar Yahwism

Mazzaroth/Mazzaloth

Jewish Zodiacs

Ezekiel’s Godly Visions

Tammuz and the Sun

Lunar Deity

Ieuo

Iao

Adon-Adonai-Adonis

Conclusion

Moses as Solar Hero

See book for details

Conclusion

Biblical Anachronisms and Errors

Brutal Literalism

Allegorical Fall

Political Fiction

Moses versus Jesus Mythicism

Preventing Armageddon

Bibliography

Index